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Topic Sentence怎么写?附Topic Sentence例句

发布时间:2021-06-17 13:36:32 阅读:196 编辑:致远教育 字数:2393 字 预计阅读时间:7分钟
导读:主题句(TopicSentence)就是一个段落的主要思想或中心思想(MainIdea)。它不仅仅向读者们展示着一个段落的主要话题内容,同时也限定了该段落所能谈及到的某个特定内容。那么主题句(TopicSentence)怎么写呢?

留学生如若想把Essay写好,最起码要写好每一篇Essy中的每一个段落。而每一个Essay写作的段落,如同一个汉堡包完整的结构一样,有topic sentence和closing sentence/concluding sentence进行头尾呼应,而中间的details(supporting sentences)则构成了该汉堡包的个中滋味。本文致远教育小编为大家分享主题句topic sentence写法。

1.什么是主题句(Topic Sentence)?

|The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one specific area that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The part of the topic sentence that announces the specific area to be discussed is called the controlling idea. 

|The topic names the subject of the paragraph. The controlling idea limits or controls the topic to a specific area that you can discuss in the space of a single paragraph.

根据Writing Academic English这本书籍先容,所谓“主题句”(topic sentence)就是一个段落的主要思想或中心思想(main idea)。它不仅仅向读者们展示着一个段落的主要话题内容,同时也限定了该段落所能谈及到的某个特定内容。而即将会被探讨的特定内容,则被称为“controlling idea”。

让大家来看一段书籍中所给出的段落:

Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistance to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was made 25 centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications, such as photography and dentistry. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts’ suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection when they go outside spaceships in space. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

在这个段落中,第一句话就是整个段落的“topic sentence”。而其具体探讨的“topic”和“controlling idea”则以下所示:

e.g., Gold (TOPIC), a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics(CONTROLLING IDEA).

除了上文所给出的段落中的主题句以外,以下是给出了清楚的topic和controlling idea的其他主题句案例:

e.g., Convenience foods (TOPIC) are easy to prepare(CONTROLLING IDEA).

通过“Convenience foods are easy to prepare.”这一个主题句,读者们能够快速了解该段落将会重点探讨准备方便食品这件事情是有多么地简单,并且还会可能读到一些相关的例子(如canned soup罐头汤,frozen dinner冷冻餐等。

e.g., Immigrants have contributed many delicious foods (CONTROLLING IDEA) to U.S. cuisine (TOPIC).

通过“Immigrants have contributed many delicious foods to U.S. cuisine.”这一个主题句,读者们会希望阅读到在美国流行的不同种族的食品(如tacos, egg rolls, sushi, baklava, pizza等等)。

另外,在为一个主题句写“controlling idea”的时候,请要注意它们之间的相关性。比如以下这一个主题句中,包含了对于一个段落彼此之间并无关系的ideas:

× too many ideas|Indie films are characterized by experimental techniques, low production costs, and provocative themes.

针对这种一个主题句包含了过多没有相互关系的ideas,建议将这些ideas分别放入三个不同的段落(甚至更多段落),然后对这三者进行仔细全面地解析。那么,被拆分后的ideas则可以在各自的段落中,重新拥有一个专属于它有关的主题句。请参考以下改良部分:

√ revised| Independent films are characterized by experimental techniques. 

主题句(Topic Sentence)的作用

2.主题句(Topic Sentence)的作用

|A topic sentence is the most important sentence in a paragraph. It briefly indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss. For this reason, the topic sentence is a helpful guide to both the writer and the reader. The writer can see what information is to include (and what information to exclude). The reader can see what the paragraph is going to be about and is therefore better prepared to understand it. 

根据Writing Academic English书籍先容,主题句(topic sentence)可以被认为是一个段落中最重要的信息。它简要表明了该段落即将要探讨的信息。也正是因为此原因,主题句成了对编辑和读者均为有助的向导。通过主题句,编辑可以明白自己即将要在一个段落中包含(或者不能包含)哪些信息。而读者也可以明白自己即将将会在一个段落中了解哪些信息,从而做出了更好的心理准备去了解这些信息。

比如前文中探讨gold的那篇文章的主题句,它能够提醒读者们去关注本段将会探讨关于黄金的两个特性(two important characteristics)。

e.g., Gold (TOPIC), a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics(CONTROLLING IDEA).

3.主题句(Topic Sentence)三大注意事项

那么,关于“主题句”,有什么重要的注意事项呢?根据书籍先容,一共包含了以下三大注意事项:

3.1 A topic sentence is a complete sentence.

首先,“主题句”必须是一个完整的句子。这意味着在“主题句”中,它至少包含了一个主语和一个谓语动词。比如以下三组均为错误的“主题句”,因为它们缺失了动词:

1)× Diving on freeways. 

2)× How to register for college classes. 

3)× The rise of indie films. 

(备注:indie films means “independent films; films not made in or by Hollywood studios”,翻译为“非主流的影片”)

3.2 A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea.

其次,“主题句”得包含了一个段落中所要探讨的主题,和该主题之下相关的特定内容。比如以下三组均为合格的“主题句”案例:

1)  √ Driving on freeways (TOPIC) requires skill and alertness(CONTROLLING IDEA).

2)  √ Registering for college classes (TOPIC) can be a frustrating experience for new students (CONTROLLING IDEA).

3)  √ The rise of indie films (TOPIC) is due to several factors (CONTROLLING IDEA).

3. 3 A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph because it gives only the main idea. It does not give any specific details.

再者,“主题句”是一个段落中最概括性(或理解为最泛泛而谈)的部分,因为它只给出了该段落中的中心思想,它并无给出任何具体细节。

主题句,就好比是一个餐厅菜单上的某一道菜。当你在餐厅点菜的时候,你会更想要了解一道菜的名称而非仅仅只是知道是“肉”、“汤”还是“沙拉”。你会想知道它大概是什么类型的沙拉。比如是土豆沙拉(Potato salad)还是水果沙拉(Fruit salad)?换言之,主题句不能过于广泛到成为一个并不清晰的概念(过于广泛的大类别),是一个清晰的概括性的概念(大概是什么类型)。

主题句(Topic Sentence)写作

当然,当你点菜的时候,你也并非会想要知道一道菜里的所有配料。那么同样地,读者们会想知道一个段落中大概会探讨了什么内容,但是他们并不会想在第一个句子中,就知道本段所有的细节。否则,如果一个段落首句都包含了所有细节,读者又有何意义继续读接下来的内容呢?况且,细节都全堆积在首句了,那么编辑又还能在该段落剩余部分写啥呢?

接下来,大家来看看三组不同的Topic Sentence例句,向各位展示什么是恰当的主题句写法,而什么又是过于广泛(too general)或者过于具体(too specific)的主题句写法。

Topic Sentence例句1: The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious. (good topic sentence)

Topic Sentence例句2: The slang expression so long (meaning “good-bye”) is probably a corruption of the Arabic salaam. (too specific)

Topic Sentence例句3: English has been influenced by other languages. (too general)

4.主题句(Topic Sentence)的恰当位置

那么,在了解了“主题句”的基本写法之后,一般大家会将其放在哪里呢?

|The topic sentence is usually (but not always) the first sentence in a paragraph. Experienced writers sometimes put topic sentences in other locations, but the best spot is usually right at the beginning. 

根据Writing Academic English书籍先容,“主题句”通常出现在一个段落之首。尽管部分富有经验的编辑们有时候把主题句放在一个段落的其他位置,但是大家还是不得不承认“主题句”的最佳位置在于段落之首。要知道,对于已经适应于英语写作方式的读者们,他们通常在一开始阅读段落的时候,就会想尽快知道该段落的主要内容是什么。

正如刚才所提及过的,“主题句”也有可能出现在其他的位置。而“主题句”有时候会出现在一个段落最结尾处。在这种情况下,该段落会时常以一系列的例子来开头,或者以一系列的事实来开头,随后该段落结尾处的主题句,则是针对这一系列事实的总结。

5.总结

在学习完毕以上所有关于“主题句”的内容后,大家在这里学习与“主题句”有关的终极版总结:

| When you write a topic sentence, remember these three points:

A topic sentence must be a complete sentence, with a subject and a verb.

A topic sentence should be neither too general nor too specific. If it is too general, the reader cannot tell exactly what the paragraph is going to discuss. If it is too specific, the writer will not have anything to write about in the rest of the paragraph.

A topic sentence should not have unrelated controlling ideas.

以上就是本文关于主题句(Topic Sentence)写作的全部内容,欢迎大家阅读。如果需要各类留学作业代写服务,请咨询网站客服。

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